GSMA has carried out a number of comparative studies in the past years. Its latest study explores children's use of mobile phones in Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia. More research studies are available here.
Conventions & legislation
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN CRC)
The UN CRC is the cornerstone of children’s rights. The Convention has three optional protocols: the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict, the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and the Optional Protocol on a communications procedure. Visit the Indicators webpage to see a list of countries which have ratified the Convention and its Optional Protocols.
Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime (Budapest Convention)
The Council of Europe convention includes child pornography under Title 3 – Content-related offences. State parties are represented by the Cybercrime Convention Committee (T-CY). Another convention by the Council of Europe is the Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (Lanzarote Convention). Most member states of the Council of Europe have ratified this Convention.
At national level, many countries have frameworks which tackle aspects related to child online protection and child sexual abuse. The International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC) regularly carries out global reviews of national legislation. More information about ICMEC’s review and model legislation is available on ICMEC’s website.
Among the main guidelines for stakeholders are the International Telecommunications Union’s (ITU) guidelines forChildren; Parents, Guardians and Educators; Industry (updated); and Policy-makers. The guidelines form part of the ITU’s Child Online Protection (COP) initiative, and were produced in collaboration with several partners and experts.
Research & studies
Several studies have been carried out on children’s and young person’s use of technology and the Internet. On a global level, UNICEF's Innocenti Research Centre, established in 1988, carries out and supports research on children's rights. View the centre's research projects and publications, The centre's work over the past 25 years is documented in an anniversary publication.
In the European Union, one of the most widely known research initiatives is the EU Kids Online, a multinational research network funded by the EC’s Better Internet for Kids programme. The network’s latest findings are available on its website.
In the USA, regular studies on children and technology are carried out by the Pew Research Centre (see the 2015 study on teens, social media and technology).
Child Safety: A User-Centred Approach to Internet Governance
DiploFoundation’s comic book (second edition) presents an illustrated short story of a child who feels distressed as he accesses a harassing video online, and the reactions and roles of his parents, civil society, and other stakeholders.
Discussion paper series
Children’s Rights and Business in a Digital World. Privacy, protection of personal information and reputation rights UNICEF’s website.